In 1866 three cowboys were killed by Indians at Las Flores Ranch in Summit Valley of the San Bernardino Mountains. Buildings were also burned and looted at what is now Lake Arrowhead. As a result, the male white population of San Bernardino Valley formed militia units to eliminate the Indians from the mountains. It is most likely that the raiders were Paiutes of Chemhuevi and not Serrano. But the white man made no distinction and in a thirty-two day campaign killed most of the Indians in the mountain areas, or drove them from their ancient homeland.
Jesusa Manuel, Santos Manuel, Lola Crispeen
The reservation of San Manuel was named for the leader of a few surviving Serranos settled there by force after the campaign. His name was Santos Manuel and he is pictured above with Jesusa Manuel, his daughter, and Lola Crispeen. The San Manuel Reservation became officially established by Presidential order in 1876.
San Manuel Reservation Map
In March 1965, the San Manuel Band, consisting of only 39 individuals, of whom 18 were full-blooded Serranos, wrote and adopted a Tribal Constitution. Roy Chacon was elected spokesman, Jane Duro, Assistant Spokesman. The purpose of their organization is to preserve their cultural heritage and to preserve the Serrano. The San Manuel Reservation is located immediately north of Patton State Hospital, in the foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains.